The information contained in these web pages has not been
verified for correctness. Some of the information contained herein is hearsay and may not
be correct. Use the information from these pages only at your own risk!
Chicory is an unusual plant in that, although it has been
cultivated for over 1,000 years, it is still very wild-looking and shows but slight
effects of its association with man. Chicory is a native of Europe but is as common as a
weed in the United States.
Chicory is a hardy vegetable that is used in three basic forms. The roots are dried,
roasted, and prepared as a coffee substitute or coffee blend. The slightly bitter, curled
dandelion-like greens (called Italian dandelion) are grown and used as potherbs. Witloof
chicory (also called French endive) is forced as a blanched, tender, fresh salad delicacy.
It is sold in some produce markets at high prices.
Catalogna/Cut Leaf Type:
- Catalogna Special - 40 days to maturity. Italian dandelion. Can be
harvested "baby size" 3 or 4 weeks after transplanting, or left to grow into
heavy tall bunches. Long, deep green, slender, deeply cut leave.
- Magdefurgh - 100 days to maturity. Italian dandelion. Medium green
tender dandelion-like foliage. Excellent for Italian salads or leaves can be cooked like
Spinach. Roots are tapered and white. Dried ground up roots can be used as a coffee
- San Pasquale - 70 days to maturity. Broader, more deeply cut leaves
than Italian Dandelion. Large, yield more deeply cut leaves.
- Toner - 130 days to maturity. Highest quality chicons, least fussy
variety for home production. Intended for fall harvest and forcing October to March.
- Witloof Improved(French Endive) - 110 days to maturity. May be used
for commercial forcing in home gardens. Leaf stalks are broad, heads are very uniform.
-Turbo Hybrid - 110 days to maturity. Biennial. Produces a refined
chicon for European restaurant sales. Slender well finished uniform heads tolerant to
- Giulio - 60 days to maturity. For spring planting. Compact plant
with brilliant garnet colored, white ribbed head. Resistant to bolting.
- Adria - 75 days to maturity. Crimson heads, white veins, 60%
marketable heads. Plant seeds 1/2 inch deep (12 to 15 seeds per foot of row). Allow 18 to
24 inches between rows. When the seedlings are 2 to 3 inches high, thin them to 9 to 12
inches apart for chicory roots and greens and 3 to 4 inches apart for Witloof. Plant in
May for greens and roots and about 120 days before frost for production of roots for
- Greens - Young, tender leaves can be harvested for greens in 60 to
70 days when they are 6 to 8 inches long. Chicory may also be blanched by tying the
outermost leaves in the same manner as endive and escarole.
- Chicory Root - Chicory root is grown as a long-season annual. Most
commercial production is in Michigan, but chicory root is easily grown under Arkansas
conditions. Dig roots in the late fall before they are frozen in the garden. The roots
will be 5 to 7 inches in diameter at the crown and tapered into a taproot. The usable root
will be 9 to 10 inches long. The roots are scrubbed to remove garden soil, cubed, and
roasted for grinding.
Do not plant seeds too early for forcing roots. The roots may grow too large or develop
flower stalks, making them unsuitable for forcing. Roots with a diameter of 1 to 1 3/4
inches at the crown are preferred for forcing. When the weather becomes cold, dig the
roots and cut off the tops about 2 inches above the crown (top of root). Store the roots
in a cool place with high moisture such as an outdoor vegetable pit or underground cellar.
During the winter and early spring, roots can be prepared in a new forcing box every
two to three weeks for a continuous supply. Most gardeners put their forcing boxes in the
basement because lack of light does not affect the quality of the Witloof heads. Some
gardeners use cold frames or hotbeds or force in a trench in the garden. A sheet of clear
or black polyethylene film should be placed over the trench to increase soil temperature.
Cut off the slender tips so that the roots are a uniform length (6 to 8 inches) and
place the roots close together in a box or other container. Fill with sand or fine soil
sifted in between the roots up to the tops of the crowns. Add 6 to 8 inches of sand or
sawdust over the crowns.The blanched tops will grow into compact, pointed heads. The
proper temperature for forcing is between 60 and 70 degrees F. Water thoroughly after
preparing the forcing box. One or two additional waterings may be necessary. Forcing
requires three to four weeks to develop firm heads.
When the heads break the surface, remove the sand or sawdust. Cut off the head with a
knife at the point of attachment with the root. Prepare heads for the kitchen by removing
dirty and loose outer leaves. Store the excess in a plastic bag in the
refrigerator.Chicory heads will keep for two to four weeks.
||If you are interested in any of the titles below, click on the title
and it will take you to Amazon.com for ordering. Click on the icon at the left for more
Seed Starter : A Guide to Growing Flower, Vegetable, and Herb Seeds Indoors and
Outdoors - by Maureen Heffernan - Publication Date: January 1, 1997 - List: $19.95 A
complete, easy-to-use gardening manual covering the basics of starting plants from seed.
Discusses indoor and outdoor cultivation, how to purchase seed, seed viability, gardening
equipment, planting charts and light requirements, planting dates, and other valuable
Processing and Germinating Seeds of Wildland Plants - by Cheryl Young, James A. Young
- Publication Date: October 1, 1986 - List: $24.95
Seeds : Native American Agriculture and Wild Plant Conservation - by Gary Paul Nabhan
- Publication Date: April 1, 1991 - List: $14.00
- From Seed
to Plant - by Gail Gibbons - Publication Date: March 1, 1991 - List: $15.95 Explores
the intricate relationship between seeds and the plants which they produce.
Gardening : A Kid's Guide to Messing Around in the Dirt/With Seeds - by Kevin Raftery,
Kim Gilbert Raftery, Jim M'Guinness - Publication Date: May 1, 1989 - List: $13.95
Now young readers will know from whence those carrots came. This full-color
extravaganza contains nearly a hundred pages of wipe-clean cardstock, hundreds of
illustrations, dozens of growing activities, plus 15 varieties of vegetable, flower, and
of Seed Science and Technology - by Larry O. Copeland, Miller B. McDonald, Lawrence O.
Copeland - Publication Date: March 1, 1995 - List: $74.95
Seeds : The Gardener's Guide to Growing and Storing Vegetable and Flower Seeds - by
Marc Rogers, Polly Alexander (Illustrator) - Publication Date: March 1991 - List: $12.95
- Seed to
Seed - by Suzanne Ashworth - Publication Date: January 1, 1995 - List: $20.00
: The Definitive Guide to Growing, History, and Lore - by H. Peter Loewer, Peter Loewer -
Publication Date: April 1, 1996 - List: $25.00
Loewer examines the vast and often surprisingly complex world of seeds in an
unparalleled thoroughness. In addition to the how-to of growing all kinds of plants and
vegetables from seed, the book also considers the role of seeds in history, literature,
and business. 100 line drawings.
- Seeds and
Propagation (Smith & Hawken--The Hands-On Gardener) - by Susan McClure, Jim
Anderson (Illustrator) - Publication Date: June 1, 1997 - List: $10.95
- The New
Seed Starter's Handbook - by Nancy Bubel - Publication Date: April 1, 1988 - List:
- Gardening In Deer Country - by Vincent
Drzewucki - Publication Date: January, 1998 - List: $9.95
- 200 Tips for Growing Vegetables in the Northeast - by
Miranda Smith - Publication Date: February 1996 - List: $7.95
- 200 Tips for Growing Vegetables in the Pacific Northwest -
by Maggie Stuckey - Publication Date: February 1996 - List: $7.95
- Building Your
Own Greenhouse (Greenhouse Basics) - by Mark
Freeman, Heather Bellanca (Illustrator) - Publication Date: April 1997 - List: $18.95
- Burpee : The
Complete Vegetable & Herb Gardener : A Guide to Growing Your Garden
Organically - by Karan Davis Cutler, Cavagnarok David
(Photographer), Barbara W. Ellis - Publication Date: November 1997 - List: $29.95
A companion to Burpee Complete Gardener, this book focuses on all aspects of growing
organic vegetables and edible herbs in the home garden. Planting techniques and tools,
garden design, and more than 90 individual plant portraits are included. 300 full-color
Gardens : From Garden to Palate - by Susan McClure
- Publication Date: September 1997 - List: $37.95
Acres and Independence: A Handbook for Small Farm Management - by Maurice Grenville
Kains, Maurice G. Kain - Publication Date: March 1978 - List: $7.95
Harvest : How to Harvest Fresh Organic Vegetables from Your Home Garden All Year Long
- by Eliot Coleman, Kathy Bary (Illustrator) - Publication Date: October
1992 - List: $19.95
Booknews, Inc. , 01/01/93:
Everyone who grows vegetables must know Coleman. He's the organic methods expert--the one
who knows how to maximize both garden yield and gardening pleasure, year round. Annotation
copyright Book News, Inc. Portland, Or.
Under Cover : A Northwest Guide to Solar Greenhouses, Cold Frames, and Cloches
- by William Head - Publication Date: November 1989 - List: $10.95
This is a complete guide to gardening with protective shelters that encourages both
beginning and experienced gardeners to add months of gardening pleasure at small expense.
With a little under-cover gardening know-how, Pacific Northwest gardeners can take
advantage of our mild climate to produce flowers, herbs, and vegetables throughout the
- Grow It :
The Beginner's Complete In-Harmony-With-Nature Small Farm Guide-From Vegetable and Grain
Growing to Livestock Care - by Richard W. Langer, Susan
McNeill (Illustrator) - Publication Date: January 1994 - List: $12.00
An indispensable guide to small-scale organic farming that features advice on everything
from building and stocking a pond to planting an orchard or making cheese. This extremely
practical and easy-to-use guide, first published in 1972, is for full-time or part-time
- Growing Great
Garlic : The Definitive Guide for Organic Gardeners and Small Farmers -
by Ron L. Engeland - Publication Date: July 1995 - List: $14.95
Vegetable Gardening : A Master Gardener's Guide to Planting, Growing, Seed Saving, and
Cultural History - by William Woys Weaver - Publication
Date: June 1997 - List: $45.00
Weaver focuses on 280 varieties of 37 vegetables in this encyclopedic guide to the history
and cultivation of some of America's most treasured heirloom vegetables. 100+ color
photos. 240 line drawings.
- A Dyer's
Garden : From Plant to Pot Growing Dyes for Natural Fibers - by
Rita Buchanan - Publication Date: August 1995 - List: $9.95
- A Produce
Reference Guide to Fruits and Vegetables from Around the World : Nature's Harvest
- by Donald D. Heaton - Publication Date: April 1997 - List: $29.95
- Growing Plants
from Seed : A Comprehensive Beginners Handbook for Vegetables, Flowers, Herbs and More
- by George Abraham, Katy Abraham, Doc Abraham - Publication Date: January
1992 - List: $13.95
A guide for first-time seed growers addresses soil mixtures, lighting, types of seed,
seed-starting kits, and more to help any gardener experience the rewarding feeling of
growing flowers and vegetables from seed. Original.
- Peppers : The Domesticated Capsicums - by
Jean Andrews - Publication Date: October 1995 - List: $65.00
Booknews, Inc. , 04/01/96:
An updated edition (first, 1984) of an elegantly produced, scholarly reference on
peppers--their history and dispersion, biology, taxonomy, cultivation, and medicinal,
economic, and gastronomic uses. Illustrated with the author's botanically accurate,
aesthetically pleasing paintings that show the blossoms, buds, young peppers, and mature
specimens of 34 cultivars. A review of the literature, a photo glossary, and an extensive
bibliography add to the volume's reference value. 9x12" Annotation c. by Book News,
Inc., Portland, Or.
- Peppers of the
World : An Identification Guide - by Dave Dewitt,
Paul W. Bosland - Publication Date: January 1997 - List: $19.95
Propagation : Principles and Practices - by Hudson
Thomas Hartmann (Editor), Dale E. Kester, Fred T., Jr. Davies - Publication Date: January
1997 - List: $86.00
The publisher, Prentice-Hall Career & Technology :
Hallmarked as the most successful text of its kind, this remarkably thorough text covers
all aspects of the propagation of plants - both sexual and asexual - with considerable
attention given to human (vs natural) efforts to increase plant numbers.
Gardening : Cultivating an Edible Landscape - by
Robert A. De J. Hart - Publication Date: September 1996 - List: $17.95
- Handbook of Organic Food Processing and Production -
by Simon Wright (Editor) - Publication Date: October 1994 - List: $119.00
- Introduction to Permaculture - by Bill
Mollison, Reny Mia Slay - Publication Date: November 1997 - List: $16.95
- Profitable Organic Farming - by Jon Newton - Publication
Date: June 1995 - List: $36.95
- The New
Organic Grower : A Master's Manual of Tools and Techniques for the Home and Market
Gardener - by Eliot Coleman, Sheri Amsel (Illustrator), Molly Cook Field
(Illustrator) - Publication Date: October 1995 - List: $24.95
Booknews, Inc. , 05/01/96:
This expansion of a now-classic guide originally published in 1989 is intended for the
serious gardener or small-scale market farmer. It describes practical and sustainable ways
of growing superb organic vegetables, with detailed coverage of scale and capital,
marketing, livestock, the winter garden, soil fertility, weeds, and many other topics.
Annotation c. by Book News, Inc., Portland, Or.
- The Art of the Kitchen Garden - by Jan Gertley,
Michael Gertley - Publication Date: January 1999 - List
This page was last updated on November 16, 2002