Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.) is a short- to medium height,
cool-season, long-lived, highly palatable, perennial grass that has smooth, soft, green to
dark green leaves with boat-shaped tips. It grows best during cool, moist weather on
well-drained, fertile soils with a pH between 6 and 7 and spreads via rhizomes to form a
dense sod. Although Kentucky bluegrass is found throughout the United States it is most
important agriculturally in the north central and northeastern regions. It is best adapted
to areas where the average daily temperature during July does not exceed 75 F. Warm summer
temperatures are the most limiting environmental factor to Kentucky bluegrass production.
Kentucky bluegrass is found in most pastures in the northeast U.S. because it tolerates close and frequent grazing better than other cool-season forage grasses. This ability makes Kentucky bluegrass and ideal species in permanent pastures that are continuously grazed. In addition, the dense sod formed by Kentucky bluegrass rhizomes make it ideal for erosion control, particularly in grass waterways.
Adapted Kentucky Bluegrass Varieties
Most varieties of Kentucky bluegrass have been developed for use in lawns, consequently, it is widely considered the most important lawn grass in the U.S. Only three forage-type Kentucky bluegrass varieties, 'Park', 'Troy', and 'Ginger', have been released in the past 45 years. Unfortunately, turf-type varieties compared with forage-type varieties of Kentucky bluegrass, in general, require higher nitrogen fertilization, greater irrigation, and dethatching to remain productive.
Kentucky Bluegrass Establishment
Very few fields in the Northeast are sown with Kentucky bluegrass seed.
However, Kentucky bluegrass generally appears in these fields, coming from seed or
rhizomes in the soil, particularly if the field was previously a pasture. If Kentucky
bluegrass is to be planted, it should be done at 10 to 14 pounds per acre in late summer
or early fall when temperatures begin to moderate and rains are more frequent. Higher
seeding rates ensure quicker ground cover. Kentucky bluegrass is slightly slower to
establish than many other cool-season grasses. This is primarily a result of slow
(approximately 14 days) germination. However, once established it spreads quickly via its
extensive rhizome production. Kentucky bluegrass's nitrogen requirements and low summer
production make it ideal for seeding with a legume such as white clover at 4 pounds per
acre, red clover at 6 pounds per acre, or birdsfoot trefoil at 8 pounds per acre. Legumes
in mixture with Kentucky bluegrass also improves the nutritional value of the pasture
compared with pure grass pastures. Tall-growing grasses such as orchardgrass, timothy,
smooth bromegrass, or tall fescue may also be included in a pasture seeding mixture with
Kentucky bluegrass where hay or silage harvests will be made each year before grazing
begins. The tall-growing grasses typically thin over time and require reseeding while the
Kentucky bluegrass will persist indefinitely.
Kentucky bluegrass can be "frost seeded" (in early spring when the soil is still honeycombed with frost) into existing pastures to thicken the stand. Successful seeding requires good seed-to-soil contact. This can be accomplished with frost seeding by seeding into a field with a thin stand of existing plants or where the pasture was grazed "into the ground" the previous fall. Greatest success is generally achieved when frost seeding is completed while the soil contains frost. Delaying seeding until mid-morning when the soil has become slippery on the surface will result in poorer stand establishment.
Seeding Kentucky bluegrass alone or in a mixtures into a conventionally prepared seedbed or no-till seeding can also be an excellent method of establishment. Do not plant deeper than 1/4 inch when seeding. Press wheels or cultipacking used in conjunction with or after band seeding will improve the seed-soil contact and the chances of obtaining a good stand. To obtain a proper seeding depth, the seedbed should be firm. This can be accomplished by cultipacking before seeding.
Kentucky Bluegrass Grazing or Harvest Management
Under normal environmental conditions in Pennsylvania, Kentucky
bluegrass produces nearly 70% of its annual forage production by early June. Consequently,
proper management during the early growing season is essential to maximize Kentucky
bluegrass's production potential. Since Kentucky bluegrass is a short growing plant,
compared to many other cool-season forage grasses, it is ideally suited for grazing.
Kentucky bluegrass pastures are often under grazed in the spring, which results in an accumulation of mature, low-quality forage. Use high stocking densities early in the growing season when Kentucky bluegrass is most productive or harvest excess growth as hay or silage. Reduce the stocking density later in the grazing season as grass growth slows. In hilly areas, grazing of Kentucky bluegrass should begin on south-facing slopes which warm first and begin growth early in the spring. Maintaining a stubble height of 2 to 4 inches in spring promotes tiller (new shoot) formation, which helps keep a dense sod. Excessive defoliation often results in shallow rooting, an open sod, and weed invasion. These effects are particularly damaging to Kentucky bluegrass in a dry summer when it is less able to recover. Kentucky bluegrass productivity is increased substantially with proper pasture rotation and rest.
Kentucky bluegrass has a large proportion of its leaves close to the soil surface and below the grazing height in managed pastures. This characteristic makes it more tolerant of over grazing than most other cool-season grasses. Consequently, tall-growing grasses will thin under abusive management while Kentucky bluegrass volunteers and thickens providing high-quality forage and protection from soil erosion. However, heavy stocking densities and continuos over grazing as is frequently the case in sheep and horse pastures, especially in midsummer when grass growth has slowed, will weaken Kentucky bluegrass and increase weed invasion.
As growth of Kentucky bluegrass declines in mid summer, livestock production on these pastures is also reduced, particularly during a dry growing season. In addition, grazing days per year and animal gains per acre are generally less on Kentucky bluegrass than other cool-season, tall-growing grasses. Exceptions to this trend occur at higher elevations and latitudes where temperatures and rainfall are not limiting.
The botanical composition of Kentucky bluegrass pastures changes over and within growing seasons depending on environmental conditions and grazing management. Under conditions of high temperatures, limited rain fall, or low soil fertility the amount of Kentucky bluegrass in a pasture will decline which allows the invasion of undesirable weed species. The ratio of Kentucky bluegrass and white clover in a pasture is strongly influenced by grazing management. As the amount of clover in the pasture declines, the pasture can be grazed more closely so that the grass competes less with the clover. If the amount of white clover in the pasture is too great, then allowing the pasture to reach a height of 8 to 12 inches will encourage the Kentucky bluegrass to compete better with the white clover. In addition, nitrogen fertilizer favors the Kentucky bluegrass component of the pasture and may be used to manipulate the clover to grass ratio.
Kentucky Bluegrass Fertility
Lime and fertilizer needs of Kentucky bluegrass should be determined by
soil testing. For best results the soil pH should be between 6 and 7. If the soil test
calls for large amounts of nutrients, they should be applied prior to seeding and
incorporated into the seedbed. If the Kentucky bluegrass is already established then
surface application of recommended nutrients is equally beneficial.
Nitrogen application to Kentucky bluegrass is not recommended if greater than 30% of the pasture is a legume. Application of nitrogen fertilizer (approximately 25 lb per acre) to Kentucky bluegrass in early spring before green-up will stimulate growth and generally allow grazing to begin earlier. Additional nitrogen applications to pure Kentucky bluegrass stands should be made in late spring and early fall when the grass is growing rapidly. Remember that nitrogen application will increase the grass's competitiveness at the expense of clover and weeds in the stand. Kentucky bluegrass-white clover pastures can be maintained indefinitely and their forage quality improved by applying lime and fertilizers according to soil test recommendations. In a recent study, when soil pH was adjusted to 6.5, 60 pounds per acre of P2O5, and 30 pounds per acre of K2O were applied to a Kentucky bluegrass pasture, yield of total digestible nutrients, carrying capacity, and beef production increased 50% over unfertilized pastures. Additional application of 120 pounds of nitrogen per acre increase beef production by an additional 39%.
Kentucky Bluegrass Disease and Insect Pests
Kentucky bluegrass is susceptible to many of the same diseases as other
cool-season forage grasses. However, these diseases rarely affect plant persistence but
may reduce yield and quality.
Grubs cause the most serious damage Kentucky bluegrass pastures. Adult Japanese beetle, May beetle, green June beetle, northern masked chafer, and European chafer lay eggs in thin overgrazed bluegrass pastures, and the larvae feed on bluegrass roots and rhizomes. Damage is most severe and recovery slowest during dry years. Controlling insects in Kentucky bluegrass pastures is most easily done through good grazing and fertility practices which maintain a healthy and vigorous grass
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This page was last updated on November 16, 2002